Capital Expenditures and Depreciation

Capital Expenditures aka CapEx is the spending of money to buy or fix assets. CapEx is typically related to buildings, property, equipment. Many financial models are built to help determine growth and expansion plans that require spending money on equipment and other assets. Understanding the relationship between CapEx, deprecation, and the financial statement is a very important aspect of financial modeling.

In the current sample financial model, deprecation and CapEx are not forecasted to change. However as the business grows, additional equipment is needed.
In the new model, we CapEx spending in Years 5,6 and 8.
CapEx Forecast

Continue reading “Capital Expenditures and Depreciation”

How to Balance Your Balance Sheet

One of the hardest parts of building a financial model is getting the balance sheet to balance, meaning the basic equation of Assets = Liabilities + Shareholder’s Equity is true.

The balance sheet itself is not the problem, it is usually the cash flow statement that introduces the error.

Here are some tips to make sure your cash flow statement is correct to ensure you calculate the correct ending cash balance.

For a working model, start with the basic financial model.


Make sure you rebuild the historical cash flow statement with formulas, that’s the only way to ensure you’ve accounted for all numbers and everything will flow going forward.

All line items on the balance sheet must be used in the cash flow statement. Continue reading “How to Balance Your Balance Sheet”

Basic Financial Model


Embedded above is a basic working financial model for Sophie’s Bicycle Shop. You can download into Excel by clicking the link at the bottom of the embedded spreadsheet.

For a typical modeling assignment, start by reviewing the historical financials, then forecast the future, and finally build some different scenarios such as opening a new store, buying a competitor etc. (I haven’t thought all these out, so I’m open to suggestions).

I’m purposely left out some sub-calculations to keep the model simple, we will hopefully cover at a later time. Continue reading “Basic Financial Model”